A walk in Clyne Gardens, Blackpill, Swansea. Passing the Admiral’s tower.
The tower was designed by David Thomas and built by Arthur Mugford in 1928 for Admiral Heneage Vivian to look at the Rhododendrons. Its about 5 meters high and Grade II listed as part of the wider edifices and features in Clyne Gardens. .
Because I’m a genealogist I thought I’d look at Arthur Mugford first, maybe David Thomas at a another time.
They were both employees of the Clyne Estate according to the new plaque on the tower.
In 1911 at the census Arthur Mugford was living in 55 Argyle Street, Swansea. 
He was a Stonemason and had been born in Bideford, Devon he was married to Ester and had one daughter called Winifred.
They had been married for 11 years and had had one child so was this Winifred?
Why do I ask?
Because, Arthur was 49 according to his return, Esther was 50. Winifred was 17 and working according to the return, 6 years older than Arthur and Esther’s marriage. Nowadays not so big a deal but in 1911 different. 
One document from one search and the anomalies are interesting.
Winifred is recorded as Arthur’s daughter (her relationship to the household head).
She is born outside the wedding range of Arthur and Esther.
Next, find Winifred.
Here’s a school record  She moved from Oxford street infants School (Swansea) on 28th January 1901 to Oxford Street Girls School She was born according to this source on 13th June 1893, her dad was Arthur and they lived at 55 Argyle street in Swansea. So her 1911 census age is about right.
Thus they were definitely in Argyle street at the start of 1901 and likely to have been there at the 1901 census, searching in TheGenealogist finds a stone mason at 55 Argyle St. Arthur Cellingford according to the transcription, a reminder to always look at the image of the document: It’s actually Arthur C. Mugford he was aged 39, with Esther aged 41, and Winifred aged 7. Esther was a Grocer working on her own account at home, they had a ‘domestic servant’ Minnie L. Buck aged 17 born Swansea. 
A search for Winifred Mugford born June 1893 gives no results.
Well, a marriage of Arthur and Esther.
So at Christchurch on Oystermouth Road in Swansea, Arthur Chalk Mugford married Esther Jane Blackmore, his age was written as 37, her’s 34, he was a bachelor and she a spinster, so neither married previously (or declared so). He was a mason, she listed no occupation, he lived at 22 Burrows Road, she at 6 Windsor Street, no father was written down for him, her father was John Blackmore (deceased) a Pilot. 
The plot is becoming more intriguing. Winifred would had been about 6 at the wedding, neither had been widowed, no Winifred Mugford in GRO (General Register Office) records, what about Winifred Blackmore?
Here she is Winfred Blackmore registered in 3rd quarter 1893 in Swansea,  no mother’s surname which almost always indicated the father was not on the document and that Esther Blackmore is Winifred’s mother, could be clarified by seeing the original.
Back to Arthur for now, he is found in the 1881 census  Swansea, a Mason, living in Argyle Street, listed as the stepson of Joshua Heard, a Dock Labourer born in Clovelly, Devon. Joshua is married to Sarah Ann, she was born in Hartland, Devon.
Enough information I think, for Arthur’s birth search, and I found his birth was registered in Bideford in the 1st quarter of 1862,  no mother’s surname given here too so Sarah Ann was not married?
The 1871 census is the next place he would be, and he was in Bond Street in Swansea.  head of the household was Joshua Heard, 42, born Clovelly, he was noted as ‘widower’, Sarah A. Mugford written as Joshua’s daughter aged 27 [!] a housekeeper, Arthur Mugford aged 9 listed as Joshua’s grandson, and Emma Mugford aged 5 listed as granddaughter (is she Arthur’s sister?).
I need to look for Sarah Ann next I think, from the 1871 census she would have been born about 1844. The census of 1851 gave a match. The household was living at Forcewell, Hartland in the Bideford district of Devon. They were: William Mugford, 63, Head, born Clovelly, Devon a Farmer 150 Acres Employing 2 Men. Mary Mugford, 64, Wife, born Buckland Brewer, Devon. William Mugford 35, Son, born Alwington, Devon, Farmers Son. Sarah A. Mugford 8, Grand Daughter, born Hartland, Devon. Elizabeth Mugford 18, Servant Hartland, Devon House Servant. Ann Cornish 15, Servant, born Hartland, Devon, House Servant. Richard Hobbs 16, Servant, born Hartland, Devon, Farm Servant. William Rowe 13, Servant, born Hartland, Devon, Farm Servant. 
From this census the name of Sarah Ann’s father or mother is not clear.
Her birth record as with others in this search does not reveal a mother’s surname. But Sarah Ann remained with her Grandmother until at least 1861, where she is living in Old Town Bideford  at the household of Richard Moore 54, Head, born Bradworthy, Devon, Retired Farmer. Mary A. Moore 49, Wife, born Alwington, Devon, Retired Farmer’s Wife. Mary Mugford 74, Lodger, born Buckland, Devon, Retired Farmer’s Widow. Sarah Ann Mugford 18, Grand Daughter born Hartland, Devon. Although this record says Mary is Richard Moore’s granddaughter, it is almost certain her grand mother is Mary Mugford the farmer’s widow.
Linking all the above together and working to build a narrative, I found the marriage of Joshua Heard and Sarah Ann Mugford, in Swansea 1872,  to date I have not found a church record for this marriage and it is outside the scope of my blog to send off for a marriage record from the GRO. This could provide Sarah Anne’s father’s name.
To show how things can be moved back into time, all the evidence is that Sarah Anne’ grandparents and Arthur’s great-grandparents were William Mugford born about 1788 in Clovelly and Mary born about 1787 in Buckland Brewer, so a final for now search into their marriage.
There were no obvious sources on the initial search, so I looked for William Mugford aged 35 at the 1851 census, and found his baptism  at Alwington, the parents were William and Mary Mugford, farmers living at Chittlecombe (modern day Chibblecombe I’d guess).
So the marriage would have had to be before then.
Which helped with the searching, then in 1806 married on 21st March, at Alwington were William Mugford and Mary Avery, both of the parish. The witnesses were John Rogers and Michael Chalk. 
Michael Chalk! Arthur Chalk Mugford!
How could I leave it there?
Well I will have to for now…
 [ ‘Listed Buildings – Full Report – HeritageBill Cadw Assets – Reports’. Accessed 15 January 2022. https://cadwpublic-api.azurewebsites.net/reports/listedbuilding/FullReport?lang=&id=22563.]
 [ The National Archive. ‘Census Record. Wales. 1911. Argyle St. Swansea. Mugford, Arthur C. (Head)’, 2 April 1911. RG14 PN:32774 RD:594 SD:3 ED:17 SN:235 Page:471. Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911 [database online]. https://www.thegenealogist.co.uk.]
 [ FamilySearch Wiki. ‘Illegitimacy in England’, 16 August 2018. https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Illegitimacy_in_England.].
 [ West Glamorgan Archive. ‘National School Admission Registers & Log-Books. Mugford, Winifred. Oxford Street School, Swansea (Girls) | Findmypast.co.uk’, 1901. Archive reference E/S/23/2/1. Record Transcription: National School Admission Registers & Log-Books 1870-1914. https://www.findmypast.co.uk.]
 [ The National Archive. ‘Census Record. Wales. 1901. Argyle St. Swansea. Mugford, Arthur C. (Head).’, 31 March 1901. RG13 PN:5075 FN:? Page:372. Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911 [database online]. https://www.thegenealogist.co.uk.]
 [ West Glamorgan Archive. ‘Marriage (PR) Wales. Christ Church, Swansea. 1899. Mugford, Arthur Chalk and Blackmore, Esther Jane. Record Transcription: Glamorganshire Marriages And Banns | Findmypast.Co.Uk’, 24 July 1899. Page 209. Entry 418. West Glamorgan Archive Services; Swansea, Wales; Electoral rolls for Swansea 1839-1966; https://www.findmypast.co.uk.]
 [ General Register Office. ‘Births Index (CR) Wales. RD Swansea Glamorgan. 3rd Q. 1893. Blackmore, Winifred.’, 1893. Vol 11a. Page 948. General Register Office – Online Indexes. https://www.gro.gov.uk.]
 [ The National Archive. ‘Census Record. Wales. 1881. Argyle St. Swansea. Heard, Joshua. (Head).’, 3 April 1881. RG11 PN:5357 FN:? Page:99. Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911 [database online]. https://www.thegenealogist.co.uk.]
 [ The National Archive. ‘Births Index (CR) Wales. Mugford , Arthur C.’, 1862. Vol 5b. Page 543. FreeBMD. https://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/search.pl.]
 [ The National Archive. ‘Census Record. Wales. 1871. Bond St. Swansea. Heard, Joshua (Head).’ RG10 PN:5452 FN:? Page:47. Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911 [database online]. Accessed 15 January 2022. https://www.thegenealogist.co.uk
 [ The National Archive. ‘Census Record. England. 1851. Forcewell, Hartland, Bideford, Devon. Mugford, William. (Head).’, 30 March 1851. HO107 PN:1895 FN:? Page:365. Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911 [database online]. https://www.thegenealogist.co.uk.]
 [The National Archive. ‘Census Record. England. 1861. Old Town, Bideford, Devon. Moore, Richard. (Head).’, 7 April 1861. RG9 PN:1502 FN:? Page:323. Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911 [database online]. https://www.thegenealogist.co.uk ]
 [ General Register Office. ‘Births Index (CR). England. RD Swansea. Glamorgan. Heard, Joshua and Mugford, Sarah Ann.’, Q 1872. Vol 11a. Page 912. Record Transcription: England & Wales Marriages 1837-2005. https://www.findmypast.co.uk.]
 [ South West Heritage Trust. ‘Baptism (PR) England. Alwington, Devon. 1815. Mugford, William.’, 25 April 1815. 266A/PR/1/4. Devon Baptisms. https://www.findmypast.co.uk.]
 [ South West Heritage Trust. ‘Marriage (PR) England. Alwington, Devon. 1806. Mugford, William and Avery, Mary.’, 21 March 1806. 266A/PR/1/5. Devon Banns Registers. https://search.findmypast.co.uk.]
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This day in history with some genealogy.
On 1st December, 1942 the Beveridge Report was released, the plans for the post war ‘welfare’ state’(BBC – History, n.d.).
It was published by William Beveridge, he was born 5th March 1879 in Bengal, India.(BBC – History – William Beveridge, n.d.)
Off I go on the genealogical trail.
Find a Grave (Find A Grave – Millions of Cemetery Records, 2021) is usually worth a look there will often be a biography even for those of us less illustrious.
From his memorial, I confirmed he was born 5th March 1879 at Rangpur, Bangladesh, and a bit more detail emerges.
His death occurred on 16th March 1963 (aged 84) at Oxford, City of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, he was buried in St Aidan Churchyard, Thockrington, Northumberland Unitary Authority, Northumberland, England. (William Henry “Lord Beveridge” Beveridge…, 2021).
This same source gives his wife as Jessy/Janet, daughter of William Philip and widow of David Mair, married in 1942.
The next step on the route led to a succinct biography at LiberalHistory.org (William Beveridge (Lord Beveridge), 1879-1963 – Liberal History, n.d.)
Stepping along as a genealogist the good things given here are the names of his parents and places he lived.
He, William Henry Beveridge was the second child and first son of Henry Beveridge, a district sessions judge in the Indian Civil Service, by his second wife, Annette Susannah Ackroyd.
A quick search did not turn up a birth record from India for him but a good place to check is fibis.org (Birth, Marriage and Death Records – FIBIwiki, n.d.) but many records do not exist.
However, it is easy enough to find his marriage, in the October to December quarter of 1942, registered at Westminster. (FreeBMD – Search, n.d.)
Here are the census records for him:
- 1891 at the Croft, St. Anne’s Road, Eastbourne, Sussex, with his parents:
Henry Beveridge 54, Head, retired Judge Bengal Civil service, born Scotland.
Annette S Beveridge, 47, Wife, born Stourbridge.
William H Beveridge 12 Son, born East Indies.
Annette J Beveridge 10 Daughter, born East Indies.
Rebecca V Herims 47, Servant, born Westbury, Gloucestershire.
Alice J Blackman 23, Servant, cook, born Sussex.
Arthur Tracy 15, Servant, footman, born Sussex
Rebecca Coleman 16, Servant, under housemaid, born Sussex
Laetitia Beveridge 13, Daughter, born East Indies.(1891 Census England. Beveridge, William., 1891)
- 1901 still with his parents at Pitfold, Shottermill, Guildford, Surrey.
Henry Beveridge 63, married, head, retired Bengal Civil service, born Scotland.
Annette S Beveridge 58, married, living on own means, born Stourbridge, Worcestershire.
William H Beveridge 22, single, son, no occupation, born India.
Annette J Beveridge 20, single, daughter, no occupation born India
Teresa A Roe 25, single, servant, cook, born Surrey
Emily E Roe 19, single, parlour maid, born Staffordshire
Ellen Collins 21, single parlour maid, born Staffordshire. (1901 Census England. Beveridge, William., 1901)
- With his mother in 1911 at 9, Swan Walk, Chelsea.
William Henry Beveridge 32, Joint Head of family, Single, born Bengal, India, Civil Servant (Board of Trade.
Annette Susannah Beveridge 66, Mother, Married 36 years, 4 childen orn 2 still living, born Stourbridge, Worcestershire.
Mabel Watson 27, Servant, Single, born Edinburgh, Cook (Domestic).
Richard Douglas Denman 34, Joint Head Married born London, M.P Underwriter At Lloyds. (1911 Census England. Beveridge, William., 1911)
- Until the 1921 census arrives next January the next useful government record is the 1939 register.
Lady Jessy (Janet)Mair born 26 Nov 1879, University Administrator Retired, Married.
Agnes Mackay McIntosh born 23 Jul 1915, Agricultural Economist, Single.
Eleanor Winifred Smith born 01 Apr 1910, Domestic Servant, Single,.
Lily May Townend 28 Apr 1912, Cook, Single.
William Henry Beveridge born 05 Mar 1879, Master Of University College, Single.
Between the lines on of the records here, his wife to be, after she was widowed is living in close proximity.(1939 Register England. Beveridge, William., 1939)
Just to show some other sources that can be used here is a newspaper report from 1909:
“Director of Labour Exchanges.
The President of the Board Trade has appointed Mr. William Henry Beveridge to be Director and Mr. Charles F. Key to be General Manager Labour Exchanges under the Labour Exchanges Act, 1909. Mr. Beveridge, after leaving Oxford, went as Sab-Warden to Toynbee Hall, and began the systematic study of the whole question of unemployment, which led him advocate Labour Exchanges as the first step in organised system of dealing with the problem of chronic unemployment. From 1906 to 1908 he was on the staff of a London daily paper, and left to take up a temporary appointment in the Board Trade. He has published a book called Unemployment, Problem of Industry, which is recognised as the standard work on the subject.”(Islington Gazette | Wednesday 13 October 1909 | British Newspaper Archive, 1909).
A quick genealogical journey for this day in history on the man whose vision was to battle against what he called the five giants; idleness, ignorance, disease, squalor and want. With a ‘cradle to the grave’ social programme that amongst other proposals called for a free national health service, it resonated with the public and this would influence Clement Atlee’s Labour Government to implement these ideas.(1942 Beveridge Report, 2021).
BBC – History: On This Day. (n.d.). Retrieved 1 December 2021, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/on_this_day/index.shtml?day=01&month=12&go=Go
BBC – History—William Beveridge. (n.d.). Retrieved 1 December 2021, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/beveridge_william.shtml
Find A Grave—Millions of Cemetery Records. (2021). Find a Grave. https://www.findagrave.com
William Henry “Lord Beveridge” Beveridge… (2021, 04). https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/225589414/william-henry-beveridge
William Beveridge (Lord Beveridge), 1879-1963 – Liberal History. (n.d.). Retrieved 1 December 2021, from https://liberalhistory.org.uk/history/beveridge-william-lord-beveridge/
Birth, marriage and death records—FIBIwiki. (n.d.). Retrieved 1 December 2021, from https://wiki.fibis.org/w/Birth,_marriage_and_death_records
Marriage index (CR) England. Beveridge, William. (1942). FreeBMD. https://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/search.pl
1891 Census England. Beveridge, William. (1891). Census Returns of England and Wales, 1891. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1891. www.ancestry.co.uk
1901 Census England. Beveridge, William. (1901). Census Returns of England and Wales, 1901. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives, 1901. www.ancestry.co.uk
1911 Census England. Beveridge, William. (RG14 PN:401 RD:4 SD:2 ED:5 SN:99 Page:197). (1911). RG14 General Register Office: 1911 Census Schedules” The National Archives. www.thegenealogist.co.uk
1939 Register England. Beveridge, William. (1939). The National Archives, Kew. www.findmypast.co.uk
Islington Gazette | Wednesday 13 October 1909 | British Newspaper Archive. (1909, 10). 4. https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/
1942 Beveridge Report. (2021). https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/livinglearning/coll-9-health1/coll-9-health/
This week, looking through some records and following on from last time’s piece on Donegal. We should remember everyone who was a part of the Great War. I thought I would stay in Donegal.
Off I went on the search in the National Archive Discovery. (Archives, no date b)
So here is Miss Annie Brogan in the War Office: Women’s (later Queen Mary’s) Army Auxiliary Corps: Service Records, First World War.(Archives, no date a)
She applied on 5th September 1917.
Her personnel number was 38873.
Her permanent home address was Ray, Rathmullan, Co. Donegal Ireland.
She was born on 24 October 1898.
She was single.
She was 5 feet 5 1/4 inches tall.
Of average build.
She had Blue grey eyes.
She had mid brown hair.
Her next of kin was her mother also Annie Brogan of Ray, Rathmullan, Co. Donegal.
Annie had applied to the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps. The form she applied on stated “No woman need apply who is not prepared to offer her services for the duration of the war and to take up work wherever she is required.”
When she applied, she was living at Teneriffe Bungalow, Foulridge, Colne, Lancashire.
She was offering her services as a ‘plain cook or waitress’.
Willing to serve at home or abroad. Could give two days notice from her present job.
She gave her background, her father was Irish from Rathmullan, he was a sailor, a captain in the employ of the Lough Swilly Steamboat Co.
She had attended Brownknowe National School, Co. Donegal and left at 12 reaching 7th standard.
She had to supply two references one of whom had to be a woman, both had to be British householders, not related to her. Including if possible: Previous employer, Teacher, Town Councillor, Mayor or Provost, Justice of the Peace, Minister of Religion, Doctor or Solicitor.
Her references were from:
Mrs. Susan Hartley, Teneriffe Bungalow, Foulridge, Colne.
James McCay Esq., Gents. Outfitter, [London]derry.
In her application Colne employment exchange noted she was very bright and capable, of pleasant appearance and eager to serve. A very good type. They received her application on 7th Sept 1917, Elizabeth Foley was the person dealing with it, she forwarded it to Warrington on 27th September 1917.
Ms Foley wrote
“Miss A. Brogan says there were no prominent people in the village she was brought up in except the priest (he has left recently) and the doctor and she never needed him. Her present employer Mrs. Hartley is a former Mayoress of Colne, and both verbally and in writing has spoken highly of her”.
Elizabeth Foley also noted she seemed a strong healthy girl. Pleasant in manner in every way.
The following letter of reference from Mrs. Hartley. Attached to the personnel document.
Miss Annie Brogan who is employed by me as a cook has applied for service with the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps in France. I can assure you she is thoroughly capable and domesticated, honesty and trustworthy, and of a kind and gentle disposition and suitable in every way for the position she applys (sic JC) for. She is very keen on this work and anxious to do her bit and I have encouraged her as I believe it to be the duty of every woman to help the men who are fighting and striving to win this most terrible war. If you see fit to appoint her to this post, I feel sure she will give satisfaction.
Yours sincerely (Mrs) Susan Hartley.”
Reference from Dr. Dickey, Market Street Colne.
He had filled a form in:
“Miss Annie Brogan, Teneriffe Bungalow, Foulridge.
Known her for 1 year as Panel Doctor.
Strong healthy and active.
Steady Reliable Thoroughly trustworthy. Fit to be trusted with confidential information. A British subject, parents are Irish, she is single.
Signed by A. A. G. Dickey MD
Physician and Surgeon.”
Reference from James McCay Esq. Gents Outfitter Duke St. Londonderry.
He had filled a form in:
“Knew her for 2 months to May 1915. He stated “this girl was in my employment as domestic servant about the times above, stated I knew nothing about her before or after she seemed a nice quiet girl. Was born in Ireland as far as I know. Parents were Irish as far as I know. Signed James McCay, Merchant.”
Next the medical check.
Miss Annie Brogan No. 38873.
Date of birth 19th (wrong date written) October. Place Co. Donegal, Ireland.
Living at Teneriffe Bungalow, Colne Lancs.
Proposed occupation. Waitress.
Not previously medically examined for service.
General health questions.
No serious illness, had Measles as a child, tonsils removed (last July).
Never absent from work for more than one month at a time.
Never fitted or fainted.
Never ‘spat’ blood.
Has regular periods, date of last period 19th April, period does not interfere with work.
Signed Annie Brogan 1st May 1919.
Medial history: Grade A.
Height 5ft 5 1/4 in.
Weight 10 stone 6 lbs.
Eyes 6/6 both, no glasses.
Teeth 2 caries lower jaw.
3 vaccination marks right arm.
Chest measurement 32 inches expansion 2 inches.
Overall health: Grade A
Declared fit. 1st May 1918.
Record of service.
53rd Welch regiment Kimmel Park 5 June 1918. Waitress.
Date of discharge 27 March 1919, Bostall Heath, Discharged as surplus to requirements.
29 Jan 1919. Overstaying leave 12 Jan 1919 – 22 Jan 1919. Fine 2/6 Forfeits 11 days pay.
Active service card.
8th May 1918 Depot Hostel Chadderton.
5th June 1918 Chadderton Posted to 53rd. Y.S Welsh Regt. Kimmel Park.
Leave granted 19 Oct to 1 Nov 1918, to Shoreham by sea.
Leave granted 31 Dec 1918 to 11 Jan 1919 absence 11 Jan to 22 Jan 1919 fined 2/6, had been to Shoreham by sea.
Leave granted 7 March 1919 to 13 March 1919. Shoreham by sea.
23 April 1919 transferred to Q.M A.A.C depot Bostal Heath.
Finally a list of her uniform items she had signed for:
Badges, Hat 1
Coat, Frock 1
Gaiters pairs 1
Hat, Felt 1
Shoes pairs 1
Stockings pairs 2
All this information was gleaned from her record held in The National Archive.
So now I have a snapshot of a young woman from Donegal. The National Archives’ reference WO 398/29/9.
I wanted to find out a bit more so here is her birth record, transcribed by me.
On 24th October 1898 at Ray, Rathmullan, Co.Donegal. Annie a Female, her father is Edward Brogan of Ray, mother Annie Brogan formerly McHenry, father is a Sailor, informant Ellen McHenry, mother’s sister who was present at birth, registered 3rd November 1898. At Ramelton, Milford, Co. Donegal. By John Patterson.(Irish Genealogy, no date)
Three years later the 1901 census for Rathmullan, Co. Donegal, Ireland, with her mother and grandparents: (National Archives: Census of Ireland 1901, no date a)
Edward Brogan 71, Head of family, R.C. Read and write, Fisherman born Co. Donegal.
Grace Brogan 72, Wife, R.C. Cannot read, born Co. Donegal.
Annie Brogan 28 Daughter in Law, R.C. Read and write, married born Co. Donegal.
Annie Brogan 2, grand daughter, R.C. born Co. Donegal.
Edward Brogan 5 months, grandson, R.C. born Co. Donegal.
The land was owned Rt. Revd. A. Delap of Valentia Island.
Now to 1911 census at the same place: (National Archives: Census of Ireland 1911, no date b)
Edward Brogan Head, R.C. Read and write, 47, Master Mariner, married born Co. Donegal.
Annie Brogan wife, R.C. Read and Write, 37, married 14 years, 7 children born all living still, born Co Antrim.
Annie Brogan 12, Daughter, Roman Catholic born Co Donegal, Scholar Read and write
Edward Brogan 10, Son, Roman Catholic born Co Donegal, Scholar, Read and write
John Brogan 9, Son, Roman Catholic born Co Donegal, Scholar, Read and write
Mary Grace Brogan 8, Daughter, Roman Catholic, born Co Donegal, Scholar, Read and write.
Ellen Palmer Brogan 6, Daughter, Roman Catholic, born Co Donegal, Scholar, Read and write.
Charles Brogan 5, Son, Roman Catholic, born Co Donegal, Scholar, Read and write.
Isabella Brogan 3, Daughter, Roman Catholic, born Co Donegal, Cannot read.
My next Genealogy move would be to find the marriage record for Edward and Annie, the parents.
From the birth record above her mother’s name was Annie McHenry, the informant was Ellen McHenry, looking at the other records for the children recorded in 1911 census some children’s records said the mother was Annie McKendrick, however the informant was a Rose McBride who was not able to sign the document, the last child Isabella’s entry states the mother’s name was McHenry the informant was mother herself, Annie Brogan. Two different maiden names recorded, I would take the sister and mother’s word for it. It is always worth double checking.
However, with cursory searches I can’t find the marriage record of Edward Brogan and Annie McHenry, it would have been around 1897 if the 1911 census information is taken as correct.
That will be for another time, it is outside the time I have set for this blog. Another lesson to be taken is stick to time limits, it is easy to get bogged down.
But now there is a biography and the start of family tree for a young woman from a place I know well.
Follow the clues and check everything.
Archives, T.N. (no date a) The Discovery Service. The National Archives. Available at: https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/browse/r/h/D7224933 (Accessed: 11 November 2021).
Archives, T.N. (no date b) The National Archives, The National Archives. The National Archives. Available at: https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ (Accessed: 12 November 2021).
Irish Genealogy (no date). Available at: https://civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/images/birth_returns/births_1898/02062/1788215.pdf (Accessed: 12 November 2021).
National Archives: Census of Ireland 1901 (no date a). Available at: http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Donegal/Glenalla/Ray/1193035/ (Accessed: 12 November 2021).
National Archives: Census of Ireland 1911 (no date b). Available at: http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Donegal/Glenalla/Ray/502866/ (Accessed: 12 November 2021).
D’ Oíche Shamhna.
All Souls. Taken by the TB. Bhuail an eitinn íad.
This week’s blog shows that sometimes family history is a sad business, especially if you reflect on the suffering of your ancestors.
Maybe more so at the time of year when the world of the living becomes blurred with that of the dead…
Is this the world genealogy wanders around in?
I’ve latched onto the following because of listening, over the years to Damien Dempsey, and a song of his called Colony:
“Annie, she came from Dunlavin Town
The TB came and killed her family all around”
I know Dunlavin is many miles from Fanad but all the same…
Is gearr go mbeimid le Oíche Shamhna, we’re nearly at Samhain and I decided to take a not quite random selection of transcriptions of records freely available from https://www.irishgenealogy.ie
I haven’t used a very scientific methodology, but I think it gives some idea of prevalence of TB in and around the area my mother was brought up.
Knowing from my own research of two Donegal relations in the early 1900’s who had died from TB.
I searched on my family names from around Fanad, Co. Donegal, viz. Kelly, Logue, Coll and McAteer, between 1900 and 1906, in Milford which was the registration district at that time, then looked at all records on those pages, which noted TB or Phthisis related.
Begining with some background.
Were Phthisis Pulmonarias and Tuberculosis used interchangeably at the time of the following records?
Well, I would say yes, with evidence from the Journal of Military and Veterans’ Health a peer reviewed journal published by the Australasian Military Medicine Association, among other sources.
“Tuberculosis was also known as Phthisis and consumption from Hippocrates through to the 18th century, the white death and the great white plague during the 19th century, and other names which evoked the despair and horror of the disease such as the robber of youth, the Captain of all these men of Death, the graveyard cough, and the King’s-Evil. During the 18th and 19th centuries tuberculosis was epidemic in Europe and caused millions of deaths, particularly in the poorer classes of society…”
During the 1800’s physicians were debating whether Phthisis was infectious, hereditary, or cancer, and secondly, whether scrofula, tubercles, and phthisis were separate disease entities or manifestations of the one disease.
The most prominent proponents of a single entity were René Laennec and the Viennese pathologist Carl von Rokitansky. In contrast, Giovanna Battista Morgagni of Padua, and German physicians Rudolf Virchov and Johann Lukas Schönlein believed the diseases were separate entities. This question wasn’t settled until Robert Koch discovered in 1882 the Tubercle bacillus and that it was responsible for all forms of the disease.” (Frith 2014)
Now in no particular order, a lot of sadness:
May 1900. Margaret Kelly of Lagg. Aged 36. Wife of labourer. Died from general TB had for 13 months. Margaret (nee McAteer) was my great grandmother, my mum’s grandmother.
March 1900. John Kelly of Lagg. Aged 13. Child of a labourer. Died from Anasarca, after TB for some years. John was my great uncle, my grandad’s brother.
February 1906. Daniel Coll of Araheera, Fanad. Aged 17. A farmer’s son. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias, had for 6 months.
July 1900. Maggie Ann Stewart of Ballyheeeran, Fanad. Aged 28. A farmer’s daughter. Died from Exhaustion caused by Phthisis had for 2 months.
July 1900. Catherine Strain of Golan, Fanad. Aged 22. A farmer’s daughter. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias, had for 6 months.
August 1906. William Grier of Little Ards. Aged 27. A granite cutter 27. Died from Phthisis had for 18 months.
July 1906. Dan Duffy of Dargan. Aged 27. Labourer. Died from Pulmonary Phthisis for some years. Died in Milford workhouse.
March 1904. Annie Irwin of Cashelennan. Aged 22. A farmer’s daughter. Died from Pulmonary Phthisis had for 1 year.
July 1906. Ellen Begley of Kinnalough. Aged 15. A farmer’s daughter. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 2 months.
July 1906. Samuel Lockhart Henderson of Ballymagowan. Aged 56. Clerk of petty sessions. Died Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 2 years.
May 1901. Catherine Coll of Sheesia. Aged 13. A farmer’s daughter. Died from Pulmonary Phthisis had for 3 months.
May 1906. Susan McGarvey of Carrowkeel glebe. Aged 24. A domestic servant. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 2 years.
June 1906. Hugh McCoach of Croaghross. Aged 40. A labourer. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 1 year.
June 1906. Hugh Carr of Kinallough. Aged 40. A labourer. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 2 years.
May 1900. Catherine Gibbons of Lighnadrumna. Aged 30. A farmer’s widow. Died from phthisis Pulmonarias had for 10 months.
May 1900. John Carlin of Croaghan. Aged 25. A farmer’s son. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 1 year.
May 1901. Mary Friel of Doaghmor. Aged 17. A labourer’s daughter. Died from Phthisis had for 4 years.
Nov 1903. Daniel McAteer of Carlan. Aged 34. A farmer. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 4 years.
June 1904. Ennis Sweeney of Ballynabrocky. Aged 42. A farmer. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 3 years.
December 1903. John Friel of Drumfad. Aged 26. A mason. Died from Phthisis Pulmonarias had for 6 months and Pleurisy for 2 months.
All these people in a small area, in an out of the way place, over a few years. Also, I haven’t noted the Bronchitis causes which were probably double the instances above. Bronchitis, which is also relatable to TB.
Tuberculosis remained a very significant cause of death in Ireland until the mid-20th century and still occupies a prominent position in the folk memory. (Dennis Pringle 2009)
Ireland’s children were said, in 1907, to be in the ‘jaws of the devouring dragon’ of tuberculosis. The ‘dragon’ rampaged through the country creating one of the worst tuberculosis death rates in Europe. Its association with poverty led sufferers to feel shame, and the widely-held belief that it was hereditary meant that often whole families entered a conspiracy of silence. People were afraid of the disease but also of how the community would react if they knew there was tuberculosis in the family. (Kelly 2011)
A folk memory of ‘shame’, I wonder has it been passed through my family?
No one talked about TB. My great grandmother’s death was associated with childbirth in family lore, but it was TB.
Academic study describes that the shame and stigma that accompanied the disease and emotional trauma led survivors to hide their past rather than ‘celebrate victory’ over the disease. Tuberculosis did not spike in seasonal epidemics in the same way as polio. This meant it did not hit a population with the same drama and human interest, factors that could increase the ‘status’ of a disease and its visibility in the media and literature. Personal testimonies were collected by Susan Kelly with the aim of filling the gaps with regard to childhood tuberculosis. It showed how the operation of stigma and social distance influenced the lives and the accounts of many survivors of tuberculosis. (Kelly 2011)
Are we guilty of romanticizing the past?
Seeing life in a bucolic paradise, it was often the opposite.
Dennis Pringle. 2009. “The resurgence of tuberculosis in the Republic of Ireland: Perceptions and reality,.” Science Direct. . Accessed 10 27, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.028 .
Frith, John. 2014. “History of Tuberculosis. Part 1 – Phthisis, consumption and the White Plague.” History Issue Volume 22 No. 2 .
Kelly, Susan. 2011. ““Stigma and Silence: Oral Histories of Tuberculosis.” Oral History 39, no. 1 (2011): 65–76.” JSTOR. Accessed 10 27, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25802216.
This week, reflecting a bit of freedom for Eva, to let her have a run about off the lead.
We walk from the Racecourse towards Cheltenham and a park we had noticed on another day.
Leaving the racecourse, we headed south to the A 435 Evesham Road. The first place of interest before we headed down the hill was Rosehill, UCAS the university clearing organisation now. It is a substantial building, surrounded by a substantial wall. In 1911 it was a 23 roomed house, the home of William Alexander Baring Bingham, he was living off private means, aged 52, born in Canterbury, Kent and married to Annie Elizabeth she was 47 and had been born in London, they had had no children. They had nine servants living there with them including a cook and kitchen maid. (The National Archive. 1911)
With family history and genealogy, sometimes a name just jumps out, Baring is certainly one of those. William Alexander Baring Bingham is relatively easy to find. Described as a generous benefactor to Nazareth House Cheltenham (Richard Barton (1988). Blog. St Gregory’s Convent n.d.). The son of William de Lotbiniere Bingham (1832-1864) and Helen Pemberton. He was the grandson of William Bingham (1800-1852) and Marie Charlotte De Lotbiniere. Anna Louisa Bingham the sister of William Bingham (1800-1852) married Alexander Baring of the banking family. (2021 n.d.) and that’s where the naming pattern arose. A note on the Bingham family; William Bingham (March 8, 1752 – February 7, 1804) the great grandfather of Rosehill’s 1911 owner, was an American statesman (and privateer) from Philadelphia. He was a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788 and served in the United States Senate from 1795 to 1801. Bingham was one of the wealthiest men in the United States during his lifetime and was considered to be the richest person in the U.S. in 1780. (Wikipedia 2021)
The PDF shows a basic Bingham family tree.
Down the hill and a left turn off the Evesham Road and there is the Pittville Pump Room.
The Pump Room was the brainchild of Joseph Pitt, he came from a small place on the Gloucester Wiltshire border, was one of the few first generation self-made men to enter Parliament during the early nineteenth century. His paternal grandfather, Joseph Pitt of Brokenborough, married Elizabeth Brown at Malmesbury, 16 Sept. 1723. Their son Joseph, who was baptized 7 Oct. 1724, married Ann Golding and moved to Little Witcombe in the parish of Badgeworth, where they had four sons: John (d. 1 May 1776, aged 22); Isaac (d. 6 May 1808, aged 52); Joseph (d. 12 Feb. 1758, aged 14 days); and Joseph of the Pump Room, who was baptized in late 1759. This Joseph Pitt’s first two wives died soon after their marriages, the second from swallowing some loose hairs from her toothbrush while pregnant. His third wife died, 11 July 1819, in Clarges Street, where he occasionally resided when in London. His friend the Rev. Francis Witts wrote in 1825 that Pitt was
‘one of those fortunate members of the legal profession, whom great sagacity, lucky opportunity and the skill of seizing on favourable circumstances have elevated from a very humble to a very prosperous situation in life. His enterprises as attorney, banker, speculator in land, and many other ways of gaining or losing fortunes, have been eminently successful.’
From his humble beginnings he became a partner in the bank of Pitt, Gardner, Croome, Bowley and Wood, which had branches in Tetbury and Cheltenham, where he was also a partner in the brewery of Gardner, Pitt and Company. Another of his partnerships was in the London bank of Bosanquet, Beachcroft, Pitt and Anderson. Pitt invested speculatively in land, purchasing the manor of Minety, Gloucestershire, from Lord Rivers for £21,000 in 1791, and the neighbouring estate of Eastcourt, which he made his principal residence, from the Earle family for £28,000 in 1807. Both properties were improved by the passage of Enclosure Acts (in 1811 and 1816 respectively), he had done something similar in 1801 at Cheltenham, where in 1800 he acquired a considerable area of agricultural land, known as the Marsh, to the north of the town, from the earl of Essex. His first contribution to the architecture of Cheltenham was the Royal Crescent of 1812, and in the early 1820’s he began to develop his estate there as the new spa of Pittville. (Farrell., pitt-joseph-1759-1842 2021)
Through financial dealings like the above, he was first returned as a member of parliament for Cricklade, at the general election of 1812 and remained so until 1831. “Cricklade described in splendid manner as ‘that villainous hole’, a market town on Wiltshire’s northern border, that ‘certainly, a more rascally place I never set my eyes on’. The countryside around he found pleasant enough, but the people were in a wretched condition, and ‘everything had the air of the most deplorable want’… Pitt owned the lordship of the manor and therefore appointed the bailiff (who acted as returning officer). He had two houses in Cricklade in 1812, increasing to 106 in 1818 and 79 in 1830; with this considerable property, he commanded one seat, which he occupied himself, with ministerial support, from the general election of 1812 onwards. The other seat was generally occupied by a Whig, returned on a loose association of weak aristocratic interests. With the backing of the 15th earl of Suffolk of Charlton Park, near Malmesbury, the choice in 1812 was Thomas Calley of Burderop, who in practice usually sided with the administration of Lord Liverpool. At the general election of 1818, however, he was defeated by another local gentleman, Robert Gordon of Kemble, Member for Wareham. He had successfully enlisted the patronage of a like-minded Whig Lord Folkestone (and eldest son of the 2nd earl of Radnor of Longford Castle) and, through him, of the 3rd Baron Holland, who owned estates near Malmesbury. Pitt came top of the poll that year, amid allegations over the creation of fictitious votes through the purchase of houses in Cricklade, and complaints against the corporators of Malmesbury being allowed to vote by virtue of their jointly owned town lands.” (Farrell, cricklade 2021)
The Pittville Pump Room was the last and largest of the spa buildings to be built in Cheltenham.
The benefits of Cheltenham’s mineral waters had been recognised since 1716, but not until after the arrival of Henry Skillicorne in 1738 did serious exploitation of their potential as an attraction begin. After the visit to Cheltenham in 1788 of King George III, the town became increasingly fashionable, and wells were opened up at several points round the town. Pittville, the vision of Joseph Pitt, was a planned ‘new town’ development of the 1820s, in which the centre-piece was (and remains) a pump-room where the waters of one of the more northerly wells could be taken.
The Pump Room was built by the architect John Forbes between 1825 and 1830. Now it is a Grade I listed building standing at the northern end of Pittville Lawn with landscaped grounds running down to a lake. (Wikipedia 2021)
A gala opening ceremony was held for the Pittville Pump Room, 20 July 1830, but Pitt stayed away, possibly because he was already disillusioned with an enterprise which he later claimed had cost him £40,000. He was elected for Cricklade for the last time at the general election the following month, when he was unable to ‘find an opening’ for Thomas Gladstone. He was listed by ministers among their ‘friends’, but was absent from the division on the civil list, 15 Nov. 1830, which led to their resignation. He was granted a fortnight’s leave because of the disturbed state of his neighbourhood, 25 Nov. 1830, and again, on urgent private business, 16 Feb. 1831. He voted against the second reading of the Grey ministry’s reform bill, 22 Mar., and for Gascoyne’s wrecking amendment, 19 Apr. 1831, which precipitated a dissolution. Pitt, who signed the requisition for the return of Lord Robert Edward Henry Somerset* for Gloucestershire, retired at the subsequent dissolution. In an address to the electors, 25 Apr. 1831, he declared that ‘it has required much resolution to make me decline soliciting to be replaced in the honourable situation to which you elevated me, but I find its arduous duties beyond my strength, at my advanced age’. The real reason for his withdrawal was said to be his increasing unpopularity and failing fortunes. However, he put up (and voted for) a supposed opponent of reform, the former Member Thomas Calley, who was elected with the other sitting Member, Robert Gordon, against another reformer after a sharp contest. On 30 May he apparently attended the reform dinner in Malmesbury, where his interest, which was challenged that month, collapsed after the passage of the reform bill the following year. Illness prevented him from presiding at the Wiltshire Society’s annual dinner, 23 June 1831.23 His influence elsewhere had been eclipsed, but he may have retained a partial interest at Cricklade for a few years.
Since the mid-1820s Pitt’s speculative ventures had gone awry, not least because of the success of the rival spas in Cheltenham. Witts noted of the Pittville Pump Room in 1830 that
‘the spirited proprietor and projector … who in the course of a long life has risen from the lowest rank of society to wealth and consequence, must, I fear, find this an unprofitable concern, less advantageous than if the money it has cost had been invested in three per cent annuities.’
His financial affairs became more and more encumbered, with crippling debts being only partially offset by the sale of some of his properties, for example of the manor of Malmesbury to Joseph Neeld in 1840. He died in February 1842, ‘highly respected by all who knew him’. He was buried at Crudwell, where his monument bore the arms of the celebrated family of Pitt, to whom he was not known to be related. It was estimated that he owed £150,000 and that the interest payments on his mortgages came to £6,000 a year, compared to the mere £4,000 he received in revenue from the properties. Another Joseph Pitt, a fox-hunting parson, who was the only son of Pitt’s estranged first son Cornelius (1787-1840), vicar of Rendcomb, began a suit in chancery, on behalf of himself and others, for the settlement of their claims against the estate. Though most had received substantial gifts during their father’s lifetime, there was to be nothing more for Pitt’s surviving sons: his heir Joseph (1796-1869), an attorney; William Gregson (1798-1846), the manager of the County of Gloucester Bank at Cheltenham, into which his father’s bank had been merged; Charles (1803-74), vicar of Malmesbury; and George Hicks, an Indian judge. A ruling was eventually given in favour of the main claimants, especially Mullings, who had lent Pitt over £50,000, and thereby came to purchase and live at Eastcourt. Other properties were sold at auction in 1843 and 1845, Neeld purchasing the manor of Cricklade. The ill-fated Pittville Pump Room, never a great commercial success, was acquired by the town council of Cheltenham in 1890. (Farrell, pitt-joseph-1759-1842 2021)
Our walk had encountered two of Cheltenham’s ‘great and good’ not that Eva was interested!
We spent a few warm few hours in the park and let the little dog run around and around, before walking back to the racecourse and the motorhome.
As we walked back, I considered it would have been remis of me to have gone to Cheltenham and not nodded at my own long distant relative, the grandly named Caesar Colclough. I wondered if he and Joseph Pitt knew each other, I suspect they knew of each other at the very least. They were Parliamentary contemporaries. Because the Colclough family had represented the county of Wexford in Ireland off and on throughout the 18th century as MPs, and Caesar might have expected to follow suit, but had his prospects blighted by an impoverished scapegrace father the wonderful ‘Sir’ Vesey, of whom Caesar wrote:
‘I was forced on my coming of age to run off from examination in Trinity College to avoid being arrested for my schooling, diet, lodging and clothing [costs], persecuted by my improvident father to join him to raise money to furnish aliment for his profligate life with a servant maid, his mistress, and her children, whilst my brother, self and mother were pensioners of her five brothers … Many a day, a penny cake … furnished my dinner, and counting the trees … my dessert. ’Twas then I learned independence and frugality, which now in opulence I still practise in my 71st year.’
In 1791 Cesar escaped to London for a legal education, but while on a visit in Paris 1792 he was arrested and made a ‘prisoner of state’. He escaped to Lausanne and although he had meanwhile succeeded to his encumbered estate, decided to remain on the Continent, leaving his brother John Colclough (killed later in a duel) to manage and remit him £600 p.a., while he dabbled in ‘mechanical experiments’ for future redemption, and perambulated central Europe.
In December 1804 Cesar’s brother John applied to him to come home and stand on the ‘popular’ interest for Wexford: a year later he agreed to do so. His decision turned out to be ‘the greatest misfortune that ever befell me’. No sooner was he returned in absentia, after a contested by-election in which he received the support of the Grenville ministry, in May 1806, than he was taken hostage by Buonaparte. He was therefore unable to take his seat. At the ensuing general election his brother John, who had been his election manager, was returned in his place, only to be shot dead defending his seat at the election of 1807.
Cesar Colclough remained a prisoner of war until 1814, when he returned to Wexford to see to his estate. By the spring of 1817 he had decided to contest the county in conjunction with Lord Carew the sitting opposition Member. They were returned after a bitter and expensive contest. Colclough, evidently not as popular in the county as his late brother, acted with opposition, voting steadily with them from 2 Feb. until 18 May 1819, when he voted for Tierney’s censure motion. He tried unsuccessfully to speak on the Catholic claims, 3 May, and had to be content with voting for them. Next day, in his maiden speech against the ineffectiveness of state lotteries, he described the superiority of continental ones, in what he feared might, from his 25 years’ residence abroad, be a continental accent. Next day he opposed the Irish window tax as a direct cause of disease. He voted for burgh reform on 1 Apr. and 6 May. On 17 May he expressed his fear that gas lighting in London would be a health hazard. No minority votes are recorded for the winter session. In 1820 Colclough could not afford a contest. He continued to live frugally (in Cheltenham!), hoping to recover the properties alienated by his father. He died 23 Aug. 1842. (Jupp 2021)
Here is Caesar in 1841 living with Jane his wife in The Park, Leckhampton, Cheltenham; Caesar Colclough aged 75 born Ireland, Proprietor of Estate, (living frugally?) with Jane Colclough 47, born Ireland. (The National Archive 1841).
He died in Boteler House, Leckhamptom, Cheltenham (Registry. n.d.) was taken back to the family estate, buried at Tintern Abbey in Wexford (Find a Grave n.d.). Probably not blissfully unaware of the lawsuits looking to claim the lands, waiting under starters orders.
He made at least 4 wills between 8th July and 6th August 1842. Here is the last one, I have transcripts of them all:
4th and last will of Caesar Colclough, of Tintern Abbey.
The last will and testament of me, Caesar Colclough of Tintern Abbey in the County of Wexford, and of Boteler House, Cheltenham Esquire. I give and devise all and singular my real and personal estate to my dear wife Jane Stratford Colclough, her heirs, executors, administrators and assignes, to and for her and their own absolute
use and benefit. But as to any estate vested on me, upon trust, or by way of mortgage, subject to the equities affecting the same respectively.
I appoint the said Jane Stratford Colclough, Executrix of this my will, hereby revoking every other will, by me at any time heretofore made. In witness whereof, I have to this my last will set my hand, the 6th August 1842. Caesar Colclough.
Witness present: James Fortnum, Surgeon, G.E.Williams, Solicitor, Cheltenham. Proved by widow in the Arches Court of Canterbury and in the Prerogative Court, Dublin.
The will was set aside by verdict of a special Jury, at Wexford. July 1852. (Colclough 1842)
So, we weren’t too far from a relative, who had left a trail of litigation behind.
2021, Meredith 2018. https://househistree.com/people/william-bingham-1752-1804 : accessed 18 10. n.d.
Colclough. 1842. “Wills.” Colcough Papers. Private Papers in my possession. PDF, 08 06.
Farrell, Stephen. 2021. cricklade. Accessed 10 18, 2021. https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1820-1832/constituencies/cricklade.
—. 2021. pitt-joseph-1759-1842. Accessed 10 18, 2021. https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1820-1832/member/pitt-joseph-1759-1842.
Farrell., Stephen. n.d. https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1820-1832/constituencies/cricklade .
—. 2021. pitt-joseph-1759-1842. Accessed 10 18, 2021. https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1820-1832/member/pitt-joseph-1759-1842.
Find a Grave. n.d. Caesar Colclough Tintern. Accessed 10 18, 2021. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/185383311/caesar-colclough.
Jupp, P. J. 2021. colclough-caesar-1766-1842. Accessed 10 18, 2021. http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1790-1820/member/colclough-caesar-1766-1842.
Registry., Principal Probate. n.d. Colclough, Caesar. 15 Mar 1881. Death 23 Aug 1842. Calendar of the Grants of Probate and Letters of Administration made in the Probate Registries of the High Court of Justice in England. London, England.
Richard Barton (1988). Blog. St Gregory’s Convent, Cheltenham. https://btsarnia.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/st-gregorys-convent-cheltenham.pdf : accessed 18 10 2021. n.d.
The National Archive. 1841. “1841 Census. Leckhampton. COLCLOUGH, Caesar.” The Genealogist. 06 06. Accessed 10 18, 2021. www.thegenealogist.co.uk.
The National Archive. 1911. “BINGHAM, William Alexander Baring. 1911. Census records. England. Rosehill, Cheltenham. Gloucesteshire. RG14PN15523 RG78PN946 RD333 SD1 ED6 SN144.” findmypast. 04 02. Accessed 10 18, 2021. www.findmypast.co.uk.
Wikipedia. 2021. Pittville Pump Room. Accessed 10 19, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittville_Pump_Room.
—. 2021. William Bingham. Accessed 10 18, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Bingham.
A walk around Cheltenham racecourse, with Eva of course, she wasn’t allowed onto the course, the fences would have been too high anyway.
We started at the car park, where the Motorhome had sojourned. Near the Dawn Run Stand. “Dawn Run (1978–1986) was an Irish Thoroughbred racehorse (Deep Run – Twilight Slave) who was the most successful racemare in the history of National Hunt racing. She won the Champion Hurdle at the Cheltenham Festival in 1984 and the Cheltenham Gold Cup over fences at the festival in 1986. Dawn Run was the only racehorse ever to complete the Champion Hurdle – Gold Cup double. She was only the second mare to win the Champion Hurdle (and one of only four to win it in total), and one of only four who have won the Cheltenham Gold Cup. She was the only horse ever to complete the English, Irish and French Champion Hurdle treble.” (Wikipedia 2021).
The racecourse itself lies in the parish of Prestbury, which is on the lower slopes of the Cotswold escarpment about a mile north-east of Cheltenham. Prestbury had a market and fair in the Middle Ages. The parish lies mainly on flat land at about 200 ft. On the west side the land rises slightly at Marle Hill and the east side rises steeply to 600 ft. A small stream, called Mill brook in 1732, runs across the middle of the parish. Most of Prestbury is on the Lower Lias, with alluvial soil near the streams. In the west, on the slopes of the Cotswolds, the Lower Lias is overlain by the successive strata of the Middle and Upper Lias and Inferior Oolite, and in this part of the parish quarries were in use from the 16th century or earlier until the early 20th. It was said that stone from Prestbury was used in the building of Tewkesbury Abbey. (‘Parishes: Prestbury’ n.d.)
There was a race-course at Prestbury Park in the 1830’s, and during the 19th century Prestbury had strong associations with horse-racing. Dr. Fothergill (‘Fogo’) Rowlands who, trained the Prince of Wales’s steeplechasers, had his headquarters at Prestbury. Tom Oliver, who rode three Grand National winners, trained at Prestbury. The ‘King’s Arms’ in High Street was a popular meeting-place for sportsmen in the mid-19th century, when William Archer, himself a jockey and the father of Frederick Archer the jockey, was landlord there. The Cheltenham Racecourse Company bought Prestbury Park in 1902. A grandstand and club-house were built in 1908 and a race-course station was opened in 1912 on the main railway line. The course has been described as the finest steeplechase course in the world and since 1924 the race for the Cheltenham Gold Cup has been held there. (‘Parishes: Prestbury’ n.d.)
There are a few names to consider, but it would be remiss not to investigate someone called Fogo. A Monmouthshire doctor, Fothergill Rowlands, established a steeplechase at Sandown in 1859. Fogo had sacrificed a career in medicine in favour of horse racing. He began The National Hunt Steeplechase. His new race was to be held at a different venue each year. (Davies 2006)
After some searching and lateral thinking, here he is in the 1871 census, at Pittplace in Epsom. John Fothergill Rowland aged 48, a Surgeon not practicing, born Nat y Glo, Monmouthshire, living with his wife Cecilia Ann 54 born Bristol, his son Cecil A. F.F. aged 15 born Nat y Glo, stepdaughters Maria and Madeline Riley in their 30’s born Bristol. Plenty of researching there if needed, his wife’s previous (married) name was Riley etc. (The National Archives. Kew, London. 1871).
We walked around the perimeter of the racecourse, we turned right away from the rail and skirted Shaw Green.
The Cheltenham Chronicle on 26th October 1858 reported that there had been a supposed incendiary fire there, at Shaw Green on the previous Sunday, Mrs. Sarah Green’s house was burning, PC George Brook had hastened there, and amongst the crowd that had gathered were a couple of suspicious characters, James Ardle and William Moss. They made off and the PC pursued, he found some matches about Ardle’s person, PC Brook took them in, and they went before the magistrate a few days later. The case was dismissed with flimsy evidence, the house was uninsured but minimal damage was caused, however it was noted if further facts came to light, then Ardle and Moss’ collars would be felt again. (Cheltenham Chronicle 1858)
We walked through some fields towards Southam De La Bere. The name Southam was in use by about 991, probably originated as an offshoot of Bishop’s Cleeve, its name indicating its position south of the main settlement. The village, built on gravel at the foot of the escarpment and between two streams that run into the Swilgate, was a small one though prosperous, as its comparatively high tax-assessment in 1327 suggests. The road running diagonally up Cleeve Hill formed the main village street. The smaller houses concentrated where lanes led off from each side of the road; further south was Southam House, and a lane leading west from the road passed the manor-house, the chapel of ease, and two farm-houses. This lay-out, with the main road passing west of Southam House, was recorded in the late 16th century. In the 1790’s the diversion of the main road along the south and east of Southam House changed the plan of the village; the old road became disused, the new road south of the village was straightened in the mid-19th century, and the kink in the new road where it passes the village was itself by-passed in the 1960’s. (‘Parishes: Bishop’s Cleeve’ n.d.)
The main building we saw was Ellenborough Park hotel, which was known as Hotel de la Bere until 2008, and before that Oriel Girls School until 1972, the original name was Southam House (Wikipedia 2021). Southam House, was the seat of the Earl of Ellenborough in 1830’s, of that family here’s a random selection the 5th Baron was Edward Downes Law 1841-1915 his entry in Find a Grave has a biography, “Commander Edward Downes Law, 5th Baron Ellenborough. Son of Henry Spencer Law and Dorothea Anne Law. Baptised on 26 May 1841 in Marylebone, London. Educated at Charterhouse School, Surrey. Entered the Royal Navy in 1854 aged just 13. He was a naval cadet with HMS Colossus, serving in the Baltic during the Crimean War in 1855 and was awarded the Baltic Medal. He became a sub-lieutenant in 1860 and a lieutenant in 1861, and 1867 he passed as an interpreter in French. During the American Civil War, he was serving on the North America and West Indies Station. He transferred to the frigate HMS Highflyer and was with her in China during the Second Opium War (1859–1861) and was awarded the Second China War Medal. In 1873, he was lieutenant commanding HMS Coquette, and saw service during the Third Anglo-Ashanti War and was awarded the Ashanti Medal. He retired as commander in 1873. He succeeded to the peerage on the death of his cousin, Charles Towry-Law, 4th Baron Ellenborough, in June 1902. He took his seat in the House of Lords on 29 Jul 1902. He married Hermione Octavia Courtenay Schenley in 1906 and they lived at Windlesham Court in Surrey. He was succeeded by his brother Cecil Law, 6th Baron Ellenborough.” (Find a Grave 2021).
The little dog and I then walked along the road towards the Church of The Ascension. A grade II* listed building, a 12th century chapel, restored mid-late 19th century in neo-Norman style by Edward Earl of Ellenborough 1861 in memory of his first wife Octavia, died 1819. (Historic England. 1987).
Nearby was the Tithe Barn, and the Priory, and Pigeon House, this area is considered to have the manor house of the De Bohun’s. This manor descended with the earldom of Hereford; the earls held it of the Bishop of Worcester and owed suit at Cleeve court. It was forfeited to the Crown some time before 1265, but in that year, it was restored to Humphrey de Bohun, and it passed to his grandson, another Humphrey, and then to his heirs. In 1346 Oliver de Bohun was said to hold the ½ knight’s fee in Southam which the Earl of Hereford once held, but Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford (d. 1361), held Southam manor at his death. Although Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford (d. 1373), made an unlicensed exchange of Southam, after his death his wife Joan held a knight’s fee there of the Bishop of Worcester. The manor later passed to the Crown through Humphrey’s daughter and coheir, Mary, wife of Henry IV. In 1422 Henry VI assigned the manor to his mother as part of her dower. Successive lessees had possession during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Crown granted the manor to Peter Vanlore and William Blake in 1604, but in 1607 granted it to Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury. In 1609 the earl sold Southam manor to Richard de la Bere, who already owned Southam House and other property in Southam. Richard’s heir was his father’s nephew, Kynard de la Bere. Kynard’s son Kynard died in 1656, and the manor passed to his son John, and then to John’s son Kynard (d. 1734). Kynard was succeeded by William Baghot, the son of his sister Anne and her husband William (d. 1724). The younger William assumed the additional surname of de la Bere and died in 1764. His son Thomas Baghot-De la Bere was succeeded by his two sisters, Grace Webb and Sarah Baghot De la Bere, and they in 1829 by their cousin Thomas Edwards, who sold the estate in 1833 to Edward Law, Earl of Ellenborough (‘Parishes: Bishop’s Cleeve’ n.d.). See above for Ellenborough.
We, back in the 21st century, the little dog and I, walked back towards the racecourse and followed the line of the Gloucestershire Warwickshire Railway towards Cheltenham racecourse station and our finish, the crowds weren’t cheering us in though.
Cheltenham Chronicle. 1858. “Supposed Incendiary Fire.” Cheltenham Chronicle , October 26: 5b. www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed October 08 2021.
Davies, Paul. 2006. Steeplechasing in Great Britain. Accessed Octoebr 08, 2021. http://www.tbheritage.com/TurfHallmarks/racecharts/Steeplechase/SteepleGB.html.
Find a Grave. 2021. Commander Edward Downes Law. February. Accessed October 08, 2021. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/223376400/edward-downes-law.
Historic England. 1987. CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION. December. Accessed October 08, 2021. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1303115.
Online, British HIstory. 1968. “Parishes: Bishop’s Cleeve.” In A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 8, by ed. C R Elrington, 2-25. London: Victoria County History.
‘Parishes: Bishop’s Cleeve’, in A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 8, ed. C R Elrington (London, 1968), pp. 2-25. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/glos/vol8/pp2-25 [accessed 10 October 2021]. n.d.
‘Parishes: Prestbury’, in A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 8, ed. C R Elrington (London, 1968), pp. 67-81. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/glos/vol8/pp67-81 [accessed 8 October 2021]. n.d.
The National Archives. Kew, London. 1871. “1871 England Census.” Ancestry. April 07. Accessed October 08, 2021. www.ancestry.co.uk.
Wikipedia. 2021. Dawn Run. October 08. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawn_Run.
—. 2021. Ellenborough Park Hotel. January. Accessed October 08, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellenborough_Park_Hotel.
Taking a look at some admiralty records. As a break from walking.
Admiralty: Royal Marines: Description Books circa 1750- 1940
These volumes summarise alphabetically in book form the information given in attestation forms. The dates noted in the list against each volume give an approximate indication of the enlistment years covered. These description books generally consist of several different though related types of register. They give age at the time of enlistment, parish of birth, and a simple description of height and complexion. Recruit books record similar information and give the signature of the medical officer passing a recruit as fit for service. Discharge books add particulars of discharge. None of the description books lists the ships or battalions in which a man served.
I thought I would search out some Swansea people and where with a cursory look I can add some more biography to one of interest because of his place of birth.
Here are a few record transcriptions by me:
On 18th August 1855, John Lewis of the parish of Swansea in the town of Swansea enlisted aged 21, he was 5ft 6 ¼ inches tall, he was enlisted by Captain Goode at Kidderminster, John was a Puddler, very likely at an Iron works, which is interesting given Swansea’s importance as a centre of copper smelting. John was described as having brown eyes and a dark complexion, his hair colour was not noted, he was Presbyterian, discharged 13th August 1867, invalided in Infantry.
25th November 1876, William James enlisted, he was from Swansea, Brown hair, grey eyes, fair complexion, he had been enlisted by Captain Carlyon at Gloucester, William was a Blacksmith aged 19 years 10 months, 5ft 6 ¾ inches tall, he joined Artillery on 14th June 1877, he was set off the rolls on 22nd April 1881, discharged objectionable (! ).
16th March 1818, John Hoskens aged 18, 5ft 7in., from Swansea, enlisted in the navy, dark brown hair, hazel eyes, fair complexion, attested by Major Jones at Bradford, John was a Blacksmith, he drowned whilst bathing (swimming) he was set off the rolls on 20th August 1822.
4th June 1859, William Chappell, aged 19, 5ft 7in, born Tredagow (I wonder if this is Tirdeunaw), Swansea, brown hair, hazel eyes, fresh complexion, attested by Sergeant James Heal at Barnstable, he was assigned to Lt. David at Barnstable, William was a labourer, a protestant, set off the rolls on 4th June 1860, discharged with a Hernia.
24th March 1806, Benjamin Browning, aged 16, 5ft 2in tall, born Swansea, brown hair grey eyes, dark complexion, enlisted by Lieutenant hand at Shepton Mallet, he was a labourer, set off the rolls 2nd august 1814, deceased.
27th September 1823, William Hague, aged 18, 5ft. 6in. born Swansea, (no hair colour listed) hazel eyes, dark complexion, enlisted by Major ones at Bath, a Shearman [A Shearman had to combine a steady hand with strength and concentration. First the large cloths would be laid over a table with a curved top. Then the shearman would use huge shears to cut the nap. These shears looked like over-sized scissors and had razor-sharp edges. Shears could weigh up to 14kg (31 pounds) – about the same as a two year old child. Shearing a single cloth could take several hours to complete. Each cloth was sheared, then had its nap raised again before being sheared once more. The process only ended when an even finish was obtained. The shearman’s trade was highly skilled and much valued. In 1677 a good shearman could earn as much as six shillings a week – a very good wage for the time.] Notes indicate he served on HMS Dartmouth at Naverino. He was set off the rolls on 20th October 1822, killed in action.
14th September 1835, Charles Luce, born Swansea, hair brown, eyes hazel, complexion sallow, enlisted by Lt. Strangways at Bath, Charles was a labourer, set off the rolls 15 November 1842 Invalided.
5th April 1859, Thomas Goddard, aged 20, 5ft 6 ¾ in., born Swansea, hair light brown, eyes grey, complexion fair, enlisted by Head Quarters, at Gosport, Protestant religion a labourer. Another record with the previous detail plus: Transferred from Royal Wilts Militia, re-engaged to Navy 6th April 1880, set off the rolls Length of service.
1st June 1801, John Jenkins, aged 18, 5ft 4in. born Swansea, hair red, eyes brown, complexion ruddy, enlisted by Lt. Col. Williams, John was a Collier, set off rolls 14th July 1815 invalided.
So lastly for now, transferred from Deal Depot to 48 company, enlisted 25th attested 27th September 1876 was Joseph Austin aged 20, 5ft 8 ¾ in., born Blackpill, Swansea, eyes brown, complexion freckled. He was enlisted by a Sergeant Hoare, at Swansea. Joseph was a labourer, stationed at Bristol under Brigade Major Hunt. Joseph was of the Church of England, he was transferred to Plymouth Depot on 26 April 1877. No discharge date given.
Given there was slightly more detail here and living in Blackpill, I’ve looked a bit further. Searching on his name and a likely birth year of 1856, bearing in mind he was born Blackpill, the 1911 census gives: Joseph Austin aged 53, Head of household, Married, born Swansea, Glamorgan, a Navy Pensioner, Cellar Man at a brewer, a Labourer, speaks English, the navy pensioner is the stand out detail with some of his children born in Plymouth. He was married to Maud Austin aged 49, they had been married for 22 years, had had 5 children 4 still living, she had been born St Martin’s, Cornwall. Their sons Richard Austin aged 20, Single, born Plymouth, Devon a Coach Smith, Sidney Austin aged 14, born Plymouth, Devon, Bootshop Errand Boy, and daughter Edith Austin aged 12, born Swansea, Glamorgan at School. They lived at 152, Oxford St Swansea. 
His daughter was born in Swansea about 1899, so here Joseph is in 1901. Joseph Austin Head Married aged 43, a General labourer born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire, Wales. Blackpill was in Oystermouth parish. Maud M. Austin Wife aged 41, born Cornwall, England. Thomas R. Austin, Son, 10, born Devon, England. Frederick P. Austin, Son aged 6, born Devon, England. Sidney G. Austin, Son aged 4, born Devon, England and Edith M. Austin Daughter aged 2, born Swansea, Glamorganshire, Wales. They were living at 118, Lower Oxford Street, Swansea.
All consistent so far. Edith is recorded as being born Swansea about 1899, so it is worth looking in the Birth Marriage Death index for her, that could give her mother’s maiden name.
Edith Margaret Austin is there, born Swansea District, about April 1899, her mother’s maiden name was Harlop as transcribed (beware transcription).
That’s enough for a wedding, 1911 says there were married 22 years, that is about 1889, given the eldest child’s birthplace of Plymouth that is the place to start. As the pieces fall into place the correct record is obvious.
At St. Matthew’s Church, Stonehouse, Plymouth, on 11th November 1888, Joseph Austin a bachelor aged 32 a private in the Royal Marines married Maud Mary Hartop (compare the GRO index, beware of transcription) a spinster aged 29, both living in Stonehouse. Respective fathers were Thomas Austin and Roger Hartop both deceased, both labourers. Witnesses to the wedding Stephen Stratton and Sarah Berry.
Concentrating on Joseph, now with his father’s name, 1861 seems a good year to find him in Swansea environs: Thomas Austin 44, Head, born Park Mill, Glamorganshire, Labourer. Elizabeth Austin 43, Wife born Burry, Glamorganshire Labourer’s Wife. William Austin 17, Son, born Reynoldston, Glamorganshire Labourer. Charles Austin 15, Son, born Penmaen, Glamorganshire, Labourer. Elizabeth Austin 12, Daughter, born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire, Scholar. David Austin 10 Son, born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire, Scholar. Philip Austin 8, Son, born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire, Scholar. Richard Austin 6, Son, born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire, Scholar. Joseph Austin 4, Son, born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire, Scholar. Mary Austin 11 months, Daughter, born Oystermouth, Glamorganshire and Mary Austin 20, Visitor, born Gower, a Labourer’s Wife. The address was Blackpill.
Back to the GRO index, there were a couple of Joseph Austin’s in Swansea but with several siblings to cross reference this is him:
Joseph Austin’s birth was registered about January 1858, in Swansea (this also means he could have been born in late 1857 the birth was registered in the 1st quarter of the year), mother’s maiden name was Clement.
So now we know Thomas Austin married Elizabeth Clement probably in the 1840’s in Gower. The next record shows the pitfalls of relying on transcription of records by all the commercial sites, and reinforces how important it is to look closely at a record.
The Ancestry.co.uk transcript states: Name: Thomas Austin, Bachelor, Marriage Age: Full Age. Marriage Date: 24 Oct 1837. Marriage Place: Llanddewi, Glamorganshire, Wales. Residence Place: Henllys. Occupation: Labourer. Father: Thomas Austin. Spouse: Elizabeth Clement. First Witness: John Clement.
My transcription from the image online: married 24 October 1839 at Parish Church of Llandewi, Glamorgan, (Llandewi is in Gower, the church is St. David). Groom Thomas Austin bachelor of full age (over 21) of Old Henllys (this is in Llandewi) a labourer. Father: Thomas Austin a labourer. Bride Elizabeth Clement spinster age not recorded of Burry, (compare census above). Father: John Clement a Victualler. A John Clement witnessed. None of the parties signed (was able to sign). A few differences, and it might not be obvious the Ancestry.co.uk record was for Gower.
Now, back to Joseph, a fairly wide search in the 1881 census gives the ship he was on at that time. Seamen on board all ships in port or docked in rivers were recorded and returns submitted to the Officer of Customs. From 1871 – 1891 returns were filed, following the ordinary census records for the port at which the ship was docked on census night, or to which it returned following its voyage. In the list of Seaman on board HMS Emerald on the night of Sunday 3rd April 1881 was Joseph Austin, Private aged 24, single, born Swansea, Glamorgan, the Captain of the ship was William H. Maxwell a married man aged 40 born Malta, a British subject.
The best fit death record discovered is for 1936, Joseph Austin registered death Swansea aged 79. However the certificate would be needed to check this.
Thus a few hours looking online in the various sources takes us from Joseph Austin in the Admiralty records at the National Archive to a reasonable biography.
Born Blackpill, into poverty, one of the youngest children of a manual labourer, at least one child born to his mother when she was in her 40’s having had 8 or more children up to then. Joseph was a manual labourer in his teens, he then joined the armed forces at Swansea at 20, he served in Deal, Bristol and eventually Plymouth and on board the HMS Emerald as a Marine Private. HMS Emerald was an Emerald-class corvette, of the Royal Navy, built at the Pembroke Dockyard and launched on 18 August 1876. She commenced service on the Australia Station in September 1878. She escorted Sir Hercules Robinson, the Governor of New Zealand from Sydney to Auckland in May 1879. Emerald was sent on a punitive mission in the Solomon Islands in 1879 after the captain and three crew of HMS Sandfly were killed by indigenous people. Emerald, under Captain Maxwell, visited the Ellice Islands in 1881. She left the Australia Station in October 1881 and returned to England. Emerald was refitted and rearmed in 1882 in England and placed into reserve. She commissioned for the North America and West Indies Station in 1886, before returning to England in 1892 and again being placed into reserve. So Joseph had served in most if not all the places listed here. He married At Plymouth in 1888 aged 32 to Maud Mary Hartop 29, from Cornwall she had moved to Plymouth at some stage, (that can be followed up) they had children in Plymouth, he had left the Marines some time after 1888. The family moved back to Swansea where his daughter was born, he worked as a labourer in a Brewery and lived near the town centre in Oxford St., he probably died in 1936 just before his 80th birthday in Swansea, having seen more of life than these few paragraphs can do justice to.
So get in touch if you would like some research into your ancestors.
 The National Archives. ADM 158 – Admiralty: Royal Marines: Description Books. LEWIS, John. ADM 158/55/11 https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ : accessed 02 October 2021.
 The National Archives. ADM 158 – Admiralty: Royal Marines: Description Books. JAMES, William. ADM 158/87/4 https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ : accessed 02 October 2021.
 The National Archives. ADM 158 – Admiralty: Royal Marines: Description Books. CHAPPELL, William. ADM 158/216/16 https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ : accessed 02 October 2021.
Incorporation of Weavers, Fullers & Shearmen. Shearmen https://www.tuckershall.org.uk/hall/history/processes/19-shearing
 Census records. Wales. Swansea, Glamorganshire. 02 April 1911. AUSTIN, James (head). RG14 PN:32759 RD:594 SD:3 ED:2 SN:67 Page:133. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk : accessed 02 October 2021.
 Census records. Wales. Swansea, Glamorganshire. 31 March 1901. AUSTIN, Joseph (head). RG13. Piece number 5074. Folio 46. Page 29. Schedule 207. Collection: 1901 England, Wales & Scotland Census. www.findmypast.co.uk ; accessed 02 October 2021.
 Marriages (PR) England. St. Matthew, Stonehouse, Devon. 11 November 1888. AUSTIN, Joseph and HARTOP, Maud. P 150. Entry 300. Collection: Devon Marriages And Banns. www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed 02 October 2021.
 Census records. Wales. Blackpill, Swansea, Glamorganshire. 07 April 1861. AUSTIN, Thomas (head). RG9 PN:4108 Page:16. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk : accessed 02 October 2021.
 Marriages (PR) Wales. St. David, Llandewi, Gower, Swansea. 24 October 1839. Austin, Thomas and CLEMENT, Elizabeth. P. 2. Entry 3. Collection: Glamorganshire, Wales, Anglican Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1570-1994. www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 02 October 2021.
We started in the vicinity of this house, TyNewydd.
The Tithe Map Apportionment shows Anne Phillips, house and land (also fields around), in 1845. At the 1841 census she was of independent means, living with Jane Phillips her daughter, Anne would have been born around 1763 in the county. The 1851 census corroborates this with a bit more detail, Anne Phillips a widow aged 86, Head of household, born Newport, Pembrokeshire a Proprietor of Houses, Jane Phillips unmarried 36, Daughter, born Newport, Pembrokeshire a Housekeeper. The National Library of Wales holds a copy of Anne’s will (along with many others pre 1858) the can be some interesting reading between the lines. Anne did not sign her name, she made a mark, it can be assumed, but not certain she was illiterate, in common with many of her gender at that time due to neglecting women and girls education by the powers that were. The main beneficiary of her will was Jane, her unmarried daughter who it would seem had looked after her mother. She mentions two married daughters and their children but not her daughters’ husbands, other than they should have no control over any bequests. Interesting family dynamics? 
We walked on a little way and turned down Feidr Brenin, on down the lane, a map from about 1940 shows only the historical map from about 1937 shows only the dwellings of Keeping Stone and West End House near our route on Feidr Brenin. The earliest record I can identify is in 1851 Eliza James married aged 39, wife of head of household born Newport, Pembrokeshire, a Master Mariner’s Wife, so he was at sea it would seem, David James 8, Son born Newport, Pembrokeshire, a Scholar, and Elizabeth James aged 3, Daughter born Newport, Pembrokeshire. In 1861, not at sea at this census, the husband John James, Head, Married aged 57, a Retired master mariner born Newport, Pembrokeshire. Elizabeth James his wife aged 49, born Newport, Pembrokeshire. Elizabeth James their daughter aged 13 at school. I have their wedding record, they married at St. Mary’s parish church in Newport, he was a Mariner his father ws a farmer, Elizabeth Thomas was his wife, her father was a mariner, I’m sure there is a story here. But what it does sow is they weren’t living at West End house then. The addresses were Trewerddig fach and Parrog respectively. Mariners and farmers reflecting the area’s occupations.
We had turned left just before West End house, and head down to the coast path. The path we were on was not there at the time of the tithe map around 1845, but was on later maps around 1890 and branched towards Bettws, near a place called the Mariners. 1841 found Benjamin and Hannah Roach at the Mariners, he was a publican, so the Mariners was a pub, it is a holiday let now, the last entry I can find at present to a pub there is for the licence renewal in 1905 to James Evans.  he had been there in 1901 viz. James Evans married aged 60, Head born Fishguard, Pembrokeshire Licensed Victualler Publican, his wife Mary Evans 56, Meline, Pembrokeshire (this was a village on the river Nevern), and their daughter M.E. A. Evans unmarried aged 36, she was born Swansea.  it wasn’t named as a pub in 1891 but James Evans was there, a Master Mariner.  Along the coast path past the holiday homes and kayak hire, past the little bays and the children swimming in the Nevern.
Through to Parrog: I found this piece, in a letter to the South Wales Daily Post in 1897 from ‘Trefdraethwr’, seems prescient…
“…located for the time being at a more ancient and historical place, viz., the town of Trefdraeth, which had its Celtic name changed to Novus Burgus (New Burgh) after the erection of its celebrated castle by the Norman conquerors in the 13th century. We read that in the year 1215 Nicholas Fitz Martin, Lord of Cemes, in the reign of King John, obtained a charter of the town and Corporation of Newport, and Sir Marteine Owen Mowbray Lloyd, Bart., of Bronwydd, is the present lord of the manor. In a commercial sense the town has fallen back. Fifty years ago the seaside known as Parrog was alive with busy hands building and rigging ships of Hearts of Oak under the able supervision of the Havards. There was also a fleet of coasters belonging to the place slate quarries and lime kilns in full flow. All these industries have come to an end. But, though the ships are gone, the mariners, who trade to all parts of the globe, continue, and are multiplied. Many of these are master mariners of note, and though the ships they command sail out of other and larger ports the hearts of the men cling to this charming spot with a tenacity equal to the numberless limpets that stick fast to the rugged rocks of the beautiful Newport Bay. A number of these who have done well have retired, and live luxuriously in “ceiled” houses which are an ornament to the town and vicinity, while the Parrog can now boast of handsome villas for the accommodation of summer visitors who flock here more and more to breathe in the refreshing oxygenic pure air wafted as upon hygienic wings from the blue bay of Newport. No doubt in time as the beauty of the place is better known it will become crowded with summer visitors. Let men of means and enterprise go in for more seaside villas, as well as a lot of bathing machines on the lovely beach, for better accommodation…”
There are no bathing machines but plenty of boats, paddle boards and leisure craft now.
Here’s a list of households in Parrog from the 1841 census with ages and occupations where listed:
Elizabeth Jenkins 52.
Stephen Henton 72 Seaman.
John Griffith 30 Butcher (his 6 week old daughter Elizabeth was listed too)
William Williams 65 Shipwright.
Samuel Davies 60 Smith
Richard Morris 50
James Bowen 38 Coroner (this is an interesting entry the transcription gives James Bowen’s occupation as a Cowner, looking at the original document it is clearly coroner, so a tip is don’t go by transcripts alone it’s clear he was of substance there were two servants living in the home with him and his wife)
Anne Thomas 63 of Independent means
Sarah Williams 25
Phoebe Lloyd 36
Sarah Davies 60 Maltster (a brewer, would have sold Malted barley for beer)
Sarah David 40
Margaret Havard 50 Publican – The Ship Aground (also see the piece above mentioning the ‘Havards’).
What is noticeable is that there are a number of women listed. The census was a snapshot taken on 6th June 1841, and only those there at the time were enumerated, an implication I take, is that some were mariners’ wives or daughter, the mariner at sea would not be given at the household. The other stand out is Parrog was a working hamlet, shipping, brewing and blacksmiths. There were many lime kilns in the vicinity, one can still be seen.
Past this lime kiln is Newport Boat Club, you can see it in the photograph above. The building is interesting, it is an ancient warehouse dating back to the time when Parrog was a busy port. Five storehouses, of which this is the survivor, were built on this site between 1758 and 1825. This storehouse was originally built by David Harries ‘40 feet long and 25 feet in breadth… near the sea shore’.
From here the path wends along the shoreline of the River Nevern, in about half an kilometre on the left is an ‘enclosure’ on the OS map, it is the site of the first Newport Castle was built by the FitzMartin family. Normans with estates in Somerset and Devon who took part in the conquest of South West Wales in the early twelfth century. Robert FitzMartin, Lord Cemmaes built Nevern Castle as his administrative centre however, after the Battle of Crug Mawr (1136), where the native Welsh decisively defeated the invaders, Nevern Castle was re-captured and the FitzMartins displaced to Newport where the proximity to the sea, made an ideal spot for the first castle; an earth and timber ringwork fortification. Some time later they built a stone castle up in the town of Newport.
A more ancient resident was buried in Carreg Coetan Arthur Burial Chamber, a bit further along the path and up a hill from where Evan and I were walking, it is a “Neolithic tomb with links to Arthurian myth. This small chambered tomb from the New Stone Age is one of the best-preserved of a number of burial sites clustered along the slopes of the Nevern Valley. A large wedge-shaped capstone balances on two of its four original stone uprights. Excavations of the site have uncovered artefacts including Neolithic pottery, stone tools and cremated human bones The ‘coetan’ part of its name is a reference to the game of quoits, often associated with monument of this type. According to legend, King Arthur himself played the game with the stone of this tomb.”
A favourite part of the stroll is crossing the bridge over the Nevern, always a prompt to take a photograph.
We walked along the river bank shore opposite the castle and head for the golf links, past Ffynon Brycyn, the lime kiln here is grade II listed, 19th century “large circular limekiln in rubble stone with sea boulders and slate shale masonry, overgrown top. Two large pointed kiln-eyes, boat-prow shaped curving walls within crucible leading down to small rear fire-opening. E kiln-eye is intact, W kiln-eye collapsed on one side. Rear of kiln is built into bank.”
On through the dunes to the beach and the walk’s end. But not without mentioning a place we would pass (or not pass by) on a walk back on another day. The Golden Lion with the mounting steps outside to help one onto one’s horse. The pub’s been there at least 300 years, probably known as the Green Dragon in the late 1700’s . An early reference (1790’s) to a pub in Newport mentions the Green Dragon in East Street. By 1830 the Green Dragon had been renamed to the Golden Lion. The publican between 1871 and 1911 according to the census returns was George John, thus in 1871 George John 23, Head born Newport, Pembrokeshire Publican, Margaret John 26 Wife born Newport, Pembrokeshire Publicans Wife, Blanche John 2 Daughter born Newport, Pembrokeshire Publicans Daughter, William John 1, Son born Newport, Pembrokeshire Publicans Son, in 1911 George John 63, Head Widowed, born Newport, Pembrokeshire Innkeeper, Hilda Rosamond John 25, Daughter Single, born Newport, Pembrokeshire Housekeeper and Ellen Beynon 34, Single, born Newport, Pembrokeshire General Servant (Domestic).
It is difficult to pass by without stopping in for a pint.
 Census records. Wales. Tynewydd, Newport, Pembrokeshire. 06 June 1841. PHILLIPS, Anne. HO107 PN:1446 BN:25. Page:278. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk : accessed 20 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. King Road west End, Newport, Cardigan, Pembrokeshire. 30 March 1851. JAMES, Eliza. HO107 PN:2481. Page:141. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co,.uk : accessed 20 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. King Road west End, Newport, Cardigan, Pembrokeshire. 07 April 1861. JAMES, John (head). RG09. Piece number 4173. Folio 51. Page 2. Schedule 9. Collection: 1861 England, Wales & Scotland Census. www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed 20 September 2021.
 Marriages (PR) Wales. St. Mary. Newport, Pembrokeshire. 03 February 1842. JAMES, John and THOMAS, Elizabeth. P 18. Entry 36. Collection: Pembrokeshire Marriages And Banns. www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed 16 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. Mariner’s Arms, Parrog, Newport, Cardiganshire. EVANS, James. RG13 PN:5134. Page:90. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk ; accessed 16 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. Mariners, Bettws, Parrog. 05 April 1891. EVANS, James (head) RG12 PN:4542. Page:88. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk : accessed 16 September 2021.
 Jones, Ray. AROUND THE PARROG IN NEWPORT, PEMBROKESHIRE. http://www.pembrokeshirehistoricalsociety.co.uk/around-the-parrog-in-newport-pembrokeshire/ : accessed 20 September 2021.
 Castles for Battles. Newport Castle. http://www.castlesfortsbattles.co.uk/south_west_wales/newport_castle_pembrokeshire.html : accessed 20 September 2021.
 CADW. Carreg Coetan Arthur Burial Chamber. https://cadw.gov.wales/visit/places-to-visit/carreg-coetan-arthur-burial-chamber : accessed 20 September 2021.
 British Listed Buildings. Limekiln at Ffynnon Bryncyn A Grade II Listed Building in Newport, Pembrokeshire. https://britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/300012761-limekiln-at-ffynnon-bryncyn-nevern : accessed 20 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. Newport Pembs. 02 April 1911. RG14 PN:33275 RD:603 SD:1 ED:13 SN:135 Page:269. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk : accessed 20 September 2021.
The blog is taking longer than the walk, it took us about 7 hours including a stop or two for lemonade.
Back to it, where were we?
Looking over to Pobbles, here’s a link to the Gower Society https://www.thegowersociety.org.uk/ where you can find more walks.
We walked down through the fragmenting dunes to the beach, below the golf course, in 1933 there was a plan to develop Pobbles, the resistance got as far as Swansea County Court where Judge Rowland Rowlands presided. The trustees of Pennard Golf Club, Dr. Frank C. Thomas and Arthur Andrews sued F.W Wilks and Pobbles Bay Ltd. for damages from trespass also to get an injunction, the golf club was represented by Mr. Rowe Harding (famous Swansea name) the solicitor was C.J.C. Wilson, Mr. Rowe Harding declared the defendants wanted to turn Pobbles into a mini-Lido! After the openings the judge declared the defence had been withdrawn, he granted £5 damages and an injunction against Pobbles Bay Ltd. and Mr. Wilks. It seems people walking around going to the bay because of the publicity around the lido were annoying the members. Mind you 4 years later there might have been a more pressing problem for any members fancying a dip in the sea at Pobbles, 12ft. sharks were terrorizing bathers at according to the Daily Mirror, ‘the monsters’ it was thought had followed a school of fish into the Bristol Channel.  I wonder if the golf club had anything to do with it.
We walked below the three cliffs to Three Cliffs bay, under the wathchful eye of Pennard castle, and maybe the ghosts of a De Beaumonts, De Braose, Despenser, De Mowbray or a Beauchamp all of whom had some control of the building before the shifitng dunes took the castle and the surrounding settlement.
Turbulent times were witnessed by these ghosts. A snippet, “The district of Gower was wrested from the sons of Caradoc ab Iestyn, about the end of the eleventh century, by Henry Beaumont, Earl of Warwick, who established in it a colony of English and Flemish settlers…
On the death of Beaumont in 1107, he was succeeded by Robert, illegitimate son of Henry I and Nêst, daughter of Rhŷs ab Tewdwr; to whom that monarch gave in marriage Fitz-Hamon’s daughter Mabel, or Mabli. He attempted to enforce the feudal laws on the native landowners, which led to Grufydd, son of Rhŷs ab Tewdwr, late Prince of South Wales, entering Gower with a large body of native troops; and, failing in an attack on the castle of Abertawe, or Swansea, set fire to the suburbs of that place, ravaged the adjacent country, and returned into Carmarthenshire, loaded with booty. In the following year he again entered Gower in like manner”.
We headed peacefully up the hill to Penmaen Burrows and Great Tor.
“PEN MAEN, in the Cwmwd of Gwyr, Cantref of Eginog (now called the Hundred of Swansea), County of GLAMORGAN, South Wales: a discharged Rectory valued in the King’s Books at £4..10..0: Patron, The Lord Chancellor: Church dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The Resident Population of this Parish, in 1801, (including the little Hamlet of Paviland) was 131. The Money raised by the Parish Rates, in 1803, was £7..7..9. It is 9 m. W. S. W. from Swansea. This Parish contains about 450 acres of inclosed Land, and about 300 acres uninclosed. The Hamlet of Paviland is six miles to the Westward of Pen Maen: and from which, one of the Church wardens and Overseers of the Poor for the Parish are chosen. Below the Church, on the Sea shore, are some very grand Rocks, particularly one called The Great Tor, which runs up to a great height, terminating in a sharp point: at 1ow water spring tides, there is a Passage under this Rock, which allows of a pleasant ride over Oxwich Sands and Pen Arth Burrows to Swansea, and is a saving of between two and three miles. The Rocks form the Eastern side of Oxwich Bay. About a quarter of a mile further is a small Pill or Rivulet, running up into Nicholaston Marsh, which divides one part of this Parish, and Oxwich, from that of Nicholaston. According to the Diocesan Report, in 1809, the yearly value of this Benefice, arising from Augmentation, Tythes, Glebe, and Surplice Fees, was £143..10..0.”
Looking back, physically and historically up on the hill overlooking the bay is a large building, which was once the Gower Union workhouse, built around 1861 and housed about 50 souls.
The 1881 census shows Christopher Davies 61 born Glamorganshire Master of Workhouse his wife Ruth Davies 61 born Glamorganshire Matron of Workhouse, their son Edward Francis Davies unmarried 34 born Glamorganshire a Farmer. Here are few of the unfortunates housed there, Elizabeth Phillips unmarried aged 27, a Domestic Servant and her one year old daughter Elizabeth, Thomas Walters widower aged 74 a Blacksmith, George Edwards married aged 66, born Glamorganshire , a Thatcher, Margaret Williams umarried 69 born Glamorganshire a Fisherwoman. So a single mother and he child, elderly craftspeople all fits with the history of these lpaces that the elderly, infirm, unmarried mothers, mentally ill were all forced to the insitiution.
Around the headland to Nicholaston, On the 19th May 1838 in the Village of Nicholaston, Gower, John Macnamara, mariner, aged 87 was mentioned in the death notices,  he was buried at St. Nicholas church. 
From here we headed down to the beach at Crawley woods and aimed for Oxwich, and the Penrice estate where 29 generations of the Methuen-Campbell family have lived.
Some refreshments wert taken on board ready for the long haul up the steps near St. Illtyd’s church, a quiet even dank place. “The parish church of St. Illtyd’s overlooks Oxwich Bay. A place of worship has stood on this site since the 6th century, but the main tower of today was built in the 14th century. The chancel of this church is thought to be a 6th-century cell. The church bell in the tower also dates back to the 14th century, but was recast in 1892. In the churchyard there is a well, which locals believe is haunted by a ghost. Legend has it that a ghost was seen in the churchyard before vanishing into a well.”
The keepers of the Bull Inn had married at St. Illtyd’s church in 1839, Thomas Gibbs and Mary Bidder both aged 20, Mary was the publican, Thomas was a shoemaker, his father was a quarryman, her father was a mariner, reflecting many of the trades practiced in early 19th century Oxwich. How did I know they were at the Bull Inn? The census, Thomas Gibbs 22, a Victualler, born Glamorgan. Mary Gibbs 22 born Glamorgan, Francis Gibbs 1, born Glamorgan (Oxwich) George Gibbs 1 month, born Oxwich.
Out around Oxwich point. Marching towards Port Eynon, a slight detour after a lanslip inland to Slade, the tuthe map shows we were walking on lands owned by the Mansell family, the tenant was David Sheppard.  Another famous Gower name.
He is on the 1865 electoral register, living still at Slade.
Onto the beach, heading past Horton, there was a Red Cross hospital here in WW1, a few lines in The Herald Saturday December 4th 1915…Sapper C. Potts 2nd Glamorgan ATRE the husband of Mrs. Potts of Temperance Cottage Treboeth, was taken to Horton after being accidently wounded in the arm.
To the finish at Port Eynon near the Salt House “It appears to have been originally built in the mid C16th as a site of salt production. The main building still visible today was used for occupation and storage whilst three large chambers on the beach were used for salt production. The sea water would enter the beach chambers at high tide where it would be stored in a reservoir. The water would be pumped into large iron pans and slowly heated and evaporated. As the salt formed it would be scooped off and stored in the northern part of the main building to dry. The first knowledge of a salt house at Port Eynon is also mentioned in a document of 1598. It would seem Welsh salt houses of the later C16th were amongst the most advanced of their day. The value if the salt is perhaps shown by the fact that the site was enlarged and fortified during the C17th, with the inclusion of musket loops within the thick walls. It appears salt production ceased around the mid C17th. Some of the structures were subsequently demolished but occupation continued in the main house. The most recent being the use of the northern end as oystermen’s cottages, which were finally abandoned c1880.”
Thomas Richards married 31, Head born Penrice, Glamorganshire, Labourer, Jane Richards 30, Wife, born Llandewy, Glamorganshire, Charles Richards, Son bron Llandewy, Glamorganshire, Mary Richards 2, Daughter born Porteynon, Glamorganshire was one family at the cottages in the Salt House.
We sat on the beach and enjoyed some well earned fish and chips, Eva had one or two also, after nearly 17 miles.
 Castles For Battles. Pennard Castle. http://www.castlesfortsbattles.co.uk/south_west_wales/pennard_castle.html
 Samuel Lewis, ‘Gelly – Glyn’, in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 358-385. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp358-385 :accessed 11 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. The Workhouse, Penmaen, Gower, Glamorganshire. 03 April 1881. DAVIES, Christopher (head). RG11 PN:5369. Page:165. Collection: Census Transcript Search, 1841-1911. www.thegenealogist.co.uk : accessed 12 September 2021.
 The Cambrian. 1838. Births, Marriages, Deaths. 02 June. P. 3c. Collection: Welsh newspapers online. https://newspapers.library.wales/view/3329300/3329303/21/nicholaston : accessed 12 September 2021.
 Marriages (PR) Wales. St. Illtyd, Oxwich, Gower. 06 June 1839. GIBBS, Thomas and BIDDER, Mary. P. 3 entry No. 5. Collection: Glamorganshire, Wales, Anglican Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1570-1994. www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 12 September 2021.
 Census records. Wales. Oxwich, Gower, Glamorgan. 06 June 1841. GIBBS, Thomas. Archive reference HO107. Piece number 1424. Book number 22. Folio number 8. Page number 9. Collection: 1841 England, Wales & Scotland Census. www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed 12 September 2021.
 The Herald. 1915. Gower Notes. 04 December. P. 8e. Collection: Wales Newspapers Online. https://newspapers.library.wales/view/4114967/4114975/162/Horton%20Gower : accessed 12 September 2021.
 The National Trust. The Salt House – Port Eynon Point, South Gower Coastal Properties. https://heritagerecords.nationaltrust.org.uk/HBSMR/MonRecord.aspx?uid=MNA135108